Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Battle Hymn of the Republic: Biblical or Bias

Hi everyone! After finishing my first year of studying at Ambassador Baptist College, (hopefully more will be written later concerning that adventure) one of my biggest projects was a ten page research paper for English Composition. Several people have asked to read the paper, so I have decided to post it online here. I will make a disclaimer that there are s few grammatical errors, however I received a grade of 152% on it. The teacher as well recommended that it be required reading for all pastors, So, feel free to let me know what you think. I hope you all enjoy!



GE 120.3

BOX 3380

APRIL 15, 2015

                     PLAGIARISM PLEDGE

     While investigating various sources for this research project, this author discovered particular facts and opinions which are not common knowledge. These included items have been notated, and this author has given full credit to the original source from which they were obtained.

     These facts and opinions, unless directly quoted and thusly notated, have been processed and presented in an original structure and with this author's original working.

     This author verifies that all work for this project was done by him except Miss Abby Carlson with grammar and punctuation editing, Miss Priscilla Champlin with computer formatting, and Mr. Aaron Stevenson with constructive criticism.

                Signed:   Daniel D. Pierce


     Thesis:  Baptist churches all over America annually sing the song, "Battle Hymn of the Republic" and yet do not know the history or the meaning behind the song. Finding out it is not a Biblical song could potentially affect how America sings the song today.

I.   The origin of "Battle Hymn of the Republic" will lead to the truth behind the song.
     A.   "Battle Hymn of the Republic" has come from several different variations and several                            different meanings of lyrics.
          1.   The song "Canaan's Happy Shore" was the original tune of "Battle Hymn of the                                   Republic."
          2.   The author to the song "John Brown's Body" copied the tune of the song "Canaan's Happy                   Shore" and added contrasting lyrics.
          3.   Mrs. Julia Howe adapted the words of "Battle Hymn of the Republic" to fit the tune of the                   song, "John Brown's Body."
     B.   The life and history of Mrs. Julia Howe helped to spark the passion she had to write the song                "Battle Hymn of the Republic."
II.  Mrs. Howe's song, "Battle Hymn of the Republic" became very popular and has been used for             several various spectacular      events.
     A.   "Battle Hymn of the Republic" just barely became known in the 1800's.
     B.   "Battle Hymn of the Republic" became more widely known and popular in the 1900's.
     C.   Today, "Battle Hymn of the Republic" is still widely being used.
III. Baptist churches all over America still sing, "Battle Hymn of  the Republic," and yet America              does not have a wide respect or understanding of the lyrics or meaning behind the lyrics.
IV.  The truth behind "Battle Hymn of the Republic" could affect Baptist churches today and                      something should be done to prevent this negative effect.
     A.   The author's beliefs do not match with the beliefs of true Christianity.
     B.   The lyrics of the song "Battle Hymn of the Republic" do not apply to the present day.
          1.   The lyrics are not based upon true statements.
          2.   The motives behind the lyrics are inapplicable to what Christians should be singing in                          churches today.
     C.   The evidence proves that churches should not sing  "Battle Hymn of the Republic."

     "Open your hymnal to page 783, and stand as we sing, The Battle Hymn of the Republic." For many years Baptist churches all over America have stood tall to sing this beloved song. Sadly, however, the congregations do not pay attention to the words of the hymn and the meaning behind it. As a result, a discrepancy has arisen about the truth of the song and whether or not it should actually be sung in those same churches today.   
     As the clock ticks backwards to the year 1807, a revival service can be found in an unchartered town of Boiling Spring. Emotions are high and the congregation is quickly becoming convicted. Some people are speaking in tongues, while others are barking like dogs. Congregants are laying prostrate on the ground convulsing and screaming, and as the service continues, seventy of the four thousand people in attendance give themselves to the Lord. Then, the thundering sound of singing can be heard from the attendees. "O brothers will you meet me, O brothers will you meet me, O brothers will you meet me, on Canaan's happy shore?" People have traveled from near and 
far just to hear the evangelizing of Mr. Stith Mead, the itinerant preacher who lead many people to the Lord. However, those people did not know this was beginning one of the most well-known patriotic songs of all time. 
     Approximately one month after the infamous Boiling Spring revival, Mr. Mead felt burdened to find a more effective way to bring sinners to Christ. As a result of this burden, he published his own hymnal titled General Selection of the Newest and Most Admired Hymns. Among those hymns was the same song from the revival service, "Say Brothers Hymn."1,2 The song became very popular and well known all over the country as men and women would sing it while working, cooking, cleaning, and doing every day tasks.
     Several years later, in 1859, a man by the name of John Brown led a raid in Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. He was a strong abolitionist, and did not, in the slightest bit, believe in the slavery of African Americans.3 He, along with five other men, ran into several buildings trying to emancipate slaves as an initiation of a slave uprising in the south. To their dismay, the men were captured and pinned to the ground by citizens. Due to this legality, Mr. Brown was tried, given a penal sentence for treason, and hung on the gallows.4
     In 1861, the Civil War was reaching its boiling point. There, men were consistently being drafted to fight for the victory in the end. The Boston, Massachusetts, military built a battalion infantry of soldiers named "The Tigers." Among this group was a young Scotchman by the name of John Brown. This young man is not to be confused with the famous abolitionist John Brown, but his fellow military men would daily remind him they had the same name. Mr. Brown was the punch line of many jokes, harassments, and witticisms. A soldier would ask, "Where's John Brown?" to which another would respond, "John Brown is not here! He's dead!" Then, another would play along and say, "but he's a pretty lively corpse to go marching around!" Because the song "Say Brothers Hymn" was popular, the soldiers decided to borrow the tune, but change the lyrics to make their banter even better. Thus, the parody, "John Brown's body lies a mouldering in the grave, John Brown's body lies a mouldering in the grave, John Brown's body lies a mouldering in the grave, His soul's marching on!"5 stuck with him until his body did stop marching on.6
As the clock winds back once again to May 27, 1819, a house that was once quiet is now shouting with excitement as Mr. Samuel Ward and Mrs. Julia Ward, Sr. happily hold their baby girl for the first time.7 Little Julia Ward, Jr. was born into a doleful world of ordeals, war, and depression. Her mother passed away five years later while giving birth to her seventh child. Then, Julia's father passed away several years later. Her family moved in with their older brother, Sam Ward, until they were old enough to take care of themselves.8 Then in April of 1843, Julia Ward fell in love with the man of her dreams and changed her name to Julia Ward Howe9 as she joined with Mr. Samuel Howe10 together in matrimony.
     The Howe family continued to grow as they had six children throughout their marriage.11 Their home was not very happy and exciting though. Mr. Howe tried very eagerly to over-control their home. There were many arguments and many tears shed between the two of them. In 1852, after being married for nine years, Mr. and Mrs. Howe signed a bill of divorcement. They no longer wanted each other to have a part in their family. However, amongst the many trials and pains Julia went through, she let her feelings fly through her fabrication of literature. She became loved by many for her deft works in plays, books, poems and dramas as writing was one of her greatest passions.12 As a result, people from all walks of life recognized the name Julia Howe.
     Another one of Mrs. Howe's life passions was her stand against slavery. She, along with her ex-husband, Mr. Samuel Howe, and five other men13 were strong abolitionists, and were involved in the group, the Secret Six.14 History shows that this group of individuals funded the Harper's Ferry raid for Mr. John Brown in 1859. Evidently, Mrs. Howe, herself, was strongly against slavery and greatly wanted it to be deterred.
     One day, Julia and her family were invited to visit a Union Soldier camp in Washington D.C. Wanting to go, she entreated her reverend, Mr. James Freeman Clarke,15 to come along. He agreed, and they all piled into a horse carriage for the tiring journey to Washington D.C. When they arrived, they checked into the Willard Hotel16,17 then egressed to the Union camp. As they pulled in, Mrs. Howe could hear the faint sounds of singing over the clip clop of the horses' hooves. As they rode closer to the soldiers, the singing intensified. They carefully listened to the lyrics and heard the men singing the famous song, "John Brown's body lies a mouldering in the grave, John Brown's body lies a mouldering in the grave, John Brown's body lies a mouldering in the grave, His soul's marching on!" Mr. Clarke was inspired by the soldiers and presented to Julia the idea of writing "good words for the stirring song."18 This song was an inspiration to the soldiers as they prepared to fight and serve for their freedom, but Julia knew it needed something more. When presented with the idea, she told her reverend she had been thinking about doing exactly that.
     That evening, the sun had said goodnight to the town of Washington D.C., and the Howe family was tucked snuggly in bed. Mrs. Howe laid awake in bed, rolling through her mind with a dearth of the words that could fit the soldiers' famous tune.  After several hours of thinking, she bolted upright. She could not escape the thoughts she had, and for fear of losing them, she quickly ran to the desk. She had become familiar with this maternal-type of experience many times before, as her children were asleep, and she did not want to wake them with the radiance of a light. There, in the dark and cold room, by the slight gleam of the moonlight, Julia quickly and carefully scribbled down her thoughts on a piece of paper.19 Then restfully she went to sleep. Within a few hours, the luminous rays of the day peeked above the horizon to say good morning to the world. Julia was ecstatic that she had written down her thoughts in the middle of the night because now they had disappeared into oblivion. She went to the desk, picked up the momentous paper, and packed it up for the trip home.
     The stanzas Mrs. Howe originally wrote that night were of great importance to her. She read and reviewed her six stanzas several times until she came to the realization that the sixth stanza did not fit in with the rest. She specifically wanted this song to reach out to the soldiers who were fighting, the citizens of the country, and ultimately the entire world. Her stand against slavery was a driving force behind her writing of the song. Furthermore, her intentions of her discourse was to tear down the Confederate soldiers and lift up the Union. Therefore, she deleted the sixth stanza from the song and further pursued having it engendered.
     In February, 1862, Mr. James T. Fields20 bought the poem from Mrs. Howe for a large price of five dollars, gave it the name "Battle Hymn of the Republic" as it is known today, and published it in his magazine, The Atlantic Monthly.21,22 This was when the song began its cosmopolitan status. The Atlantic Monthly had over 30,000 subscribers,23 and people from all over the country looked inside the magazine to read this poem for the first time. Of course, the words were beautiful, but nobody knew the underlying motives behind them. Popularity of the battle hymn continued to grow, and people began singing it more and more. 
     Since that time, it has been sung by billions of people. It served as a dirge for the memorial services of Ronald Reagan, Winston Churchill, and the victims of the September eleven attacks. It is traditionally played at the Presidential inaugurations and the National Conventions of the Democratic and Republican parties. It has popularly been sung by Elvis Presley, Judy Garland, Johnny Cash, Andy Williams, Whitney Houston, The Mormon and Brooklyn Tabernacle Choirs, and many others as well.
     Clearly, "Battle Hymn of the Republic" has become loved and admired by many. In fact, according to a recent survey of one hundred people, eighty-six percent claimed they had sung "Battle Hymn of the Republic" in their churches.24  The underlying problem is many times people sing songs, and they pay closer attention to the beat, the tune, or the delectable and fuzzy feeling it gives, instead of the intentions behind the song. As a result, many of the people who love and admire "Battle Hymn of the Republic" do not understand the history or the meaning behind the lyrics. Before deciding that the song should be sung again, it is requisite to consider several truths.
     First, Mrs. Julia Howe's beliefs did not comply with the Bible. As a devout Unitarian, Mrs. Howe believed strongly that Jesus was not the son of God. She believed that He was a good man and was a great example by which to follow and live. This belief resulted in Julia Howe's strong disagreement and disapproval with war and slavery. The truth is that Jesus was a good man. He was a great example and left behind a great legacy for Christians to follow. However, He was so much more than a good man. He was, is, and forever will be the Son of God. John 3:16 states, "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten son,..."25 Additionally, other verses can clearly be pointed out that He is the Son of God.26 Because He is the Son of God, He could then come down from Heaven to die on the cross for the sin of all humanity. This "Sin of all humanity" concept leads to some of the other heterodox beliefs of Unitarians. They do not believe in the sin or depravity of mankind. They believe God intended man to do either righteous or evil deeds. However Romans 3:23 states, "For all have sinned and come short of the glory of God."27 If man did not sin, there would not be any good reason for Jesus to sacrifice Himself through the fatality of the  cross.
     Furthermore, Unitarians err in the truth of the Scriptures. They believe it was inspired by God, but claim since it was written by humans it is capable of containing human error. This fallacy is proven when one looks at the Scripture for counsel. Proverbs 30:5 states, "Every word of God is pure."28 and John 17:17 states, "... thy word is truth."29 Thus, it can be concluded that every verse, every sentence, every word, jot, and tittle of the Bible is inspired by God and completely and entirely true. As these beliefs are carefully observed, it cannot be possible that Christians all over America sing the same beliefs of Julia Howe when they sing "Battle Hymn of the Republic" in their churches.
     Second, Colossians 3:16 states, "Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord."30 Psalm 95:1 states, "
O come, let us sing unto the LORD: let us make a joyful noise to the rock of our salvation."31 When someone comes to church and sings a song, the purpose of the song is to sing unto the Lord and glorify Him. Because of Mrs. Julia Howe's strong abolitionist beliefs, she wrote "Battle Hymn of the Republic" to tear down the Confederate soldiers and their stand for slavery.32 As she wrote the words to the verses, she used past perfect tense for some words. This concept can be seen in the statements, "Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord," "He hath loosed the fateful lightning of his terrible swift sword," and "He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat; He is sifting out the hearts of men before his judgment seat." She wrote these specifically to implicitly state that God had, in the Civil War, already come to place His judgment on the Confederate soldiers. Of course, anyone who knows the truth should know that these events have not yet occurred. God has not yet returned for His children, He has not yet sent His judgment upon the earth, and He has not yet judged the world at the judgment seat.
     Mrs. Howe also wrote several statements in future tense as seen in the lines, "'As ye deal with my contemners, so with you my grace shall deal;' Let the Hero born of woman, crush the serpent with his heel." She clearly had execration toward the Confederates and their stand for slavery; therefore, she wanted God to crush them, and deal with them, as they were doing to others. If Christians are singing this song in churches today, they cannot and must not mean the same concept that Mrs. Howe meant in the song. The trading of servants is no longer a legal problem in America today. Thus, there can be no real purpose to sing against it or against the Confederates. Therefore, it does not follow the Biblical principle of singing to the Lord and His glory.
     Finally, after one researcher looked through thirty-three completely different hymnals at the library of a Bible college, statistics showed him this: Thirteen hymnals deducted the third and sixth verse, three did not include the sixth verse, sixteen did not even contain the song, and the last hymnal deducted only the third verse. Those statistics may not seem very important; however, it is great evidence to support the unbiblical state of the song. If forty-eight percent of those hymnals do not even contain the song, then those publishers must have had a specific reason not to include it in their book. The third verse specifically deals with the judgment of God on the confederates, and yet an additional forty-two percent of the hymnals deducted it from their page. Then, the sixth verse, the verse Mrs. Julia Howe took out of her almost published discourse, is the only verse that could potentially, truthfully, and Biblically be sung in churches today. That verse was found in only one of the thirty-three hymnals. Therefore, ninety-seven percent of the hymnals did not contain the only truthful and Biblical part of the song. Additionally, in most cases, when it is sung in church, congregations are not singing the Biblical and truthful part of the song.
     Through the evidence expounded here, it is flagrant to see that "Battle Hymn of the Republic" was not written for the purpose of singing in churches. After Mrs. Howe wrote the song, she claimed, "I didn't write 'Battle Hymn of the Republic'; God did."33 However, it is evident, that this is not a song that God would condone or have Christians sing in His house. In consideration of the evidence shown, "Battle Hymn of the Republic" should not be a song sung in churches. It does not glorify God and does not praise Him. The point is beyond "Battle Hymn of the Republic" but goes back to music itself. Christians listen to and sing a great amount of music without actually listening or paying attention to the lyrics or motives. By looking at "Battle Hymn of the Republic,"34 it is evident to see how important it is for Christians to filter a song through the Bible before it comes out of the hymnbook.

     1. A copy of the "Say Brothers Hymn" can be found in Appendix A.
     2. Stauffer, John. Soskis, Benjamin. "The Battle Hymn of the Republic: A Biography of the Song that Marches on." Oxford University Press 2013. 17-18.
     3. A picture of Mr. John Brown can be found in Appendix B.
     4. A copy of the treason for Mr. Brown's death, written by Reverend James Freeman Clarke (See Page 5) can be found in Appendix C.
     5. A copy of "John Brown's Body" can be found in Appendix D.
     6. Stutler, Body Blynn. "Glory, Glory, Hallelujah: the story of John Browns Body and the Battle Hymn of the Republic." Isha Books 2013. 15-20.
     7. A picture of Mr. Samuel Ward and Mrs. Julia Ward Sr. can be found in Appendix E.
     8. A drawing of Julia's brother, Sam, and his wife can be found in Appendix F.
     9. An older picture of Mrs. Julia Ward can be found in Appendix G.
     10. A picture of Mr. Samuel Howe can be found in Appendix H.
     11. The six children were named Julia, Florence, Laura, Henry, Maud, and Samuel Jr.
     12. Some of her poems included Passion Flowers, Words for the Hour, Later Lyrics, and From Sunset Ridge: Poems Old and New. Some of her books included Reminiscences 1819-1899, Margaret Fuller, A Trip to Cuba, From the Oak to the Olive: A Plain Record of a Pleasant Journey, and Memoir of Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe. Some of her playwrights included Lenora or the World's Own and Hippolytus.
     13. The five other men were Mr. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Mr. Theodore Parker, Mr. Franklin Sanborn, Mr. Gerrit Smith, and Mr. George Luther Stearns.
     14. Pictures and more information about the Secret Six can be found in Appendix I.
     15. A pictures of Mr. James Freeman Clarke can be found in Appendix J.
     16. A picture of The Willard Hotel can be found in Appendix K.
     17. After opening in 1820, The Willard Hotel became a pompous and historic landmark as many magnate people checked into a room for the night. These people included the author Charles Dickens, the famous opera singer Jenny Lind, American President Franklin Pierce, American President Abraham Lincoln, British Ambassador Lord Napier, American General Ulysses S. Grant, American President Grover Cleveland, American President Calvin Coolidge, and American President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
     18. Howe, Julia Ward. "Reminisces: 1819-1899." Houghton, Mifflin and Company 1899. Accessed February 26, 2015.https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/Julia-Ward-Howe-Battle-Hymn-of-the-Republic-.
     19. A copy of Julia's original manuscript can be found in Appendix L.
     20. A picture of Mr. James T. Fields can be found in Appendix M.
     21. A copy of the original publishing of "Battle Hymn of the Republic" can be found in Appendix N.
     22. "Civil War Music: The Battle Hymn of the Republic." civilwar.org. Accessed February 26, 2015. http:// www.civilwar.org/education/history/on-the-homefront/culture/music/the-battle-hymn-of-the-republic/the-battle-hymn-of-the.html.
     23. Murphy, Cullen. "A History of the Atlantic Monthly." theatlantic.com. Accessed February 26, 2015. https://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/about/atlhistf.htm.
     24. Facebook Community. survey by author. "Battle Hymn of the Republic." Accessed February 28, 2015. https:// www.surveymonkey.com/summary/zIJPYfG4YLeNhveJ_2FxMU_2Bx1OjEw3PDHOpWwbnWcGn68_3D.
     25. John 3:16 (King James Version.
     26. Other scriptures would include Deuteronomy 3:25, Matthew 8:29, 14:33, and 27:54, Mark 1:1, 3:11, and 15:39, Luke 1:35, 3:38, 4:41, 8:28, and 22:70, John 1:34, 49, 3:18, 5:25, 10:36, 11:4, 27, and 20:31, Acts 8:37, and 9:20, 2 Corinthians 1:19, Galatians 2:20, Ephesians 4:13, Hebrews 4:14, 1 John 3:8, 4:15, 5:5, 10, 12, 13, and 20.
     27. Romans 3:23 (King James Version).
     28. Proverbs 30:5 (King James Version).
     29. John 17:17 (King James Version).
     30. Colossians 3:16 (King James Version).
     31. Psalm 95:1 (King James Version).
     32. A picture of Mrs. Julia Howe at an older age can be found in Appendix O.
     33. Stauffer, John. "Battle Hymn of the Republic" C-SPAN lecture. (video) November 15, 2014, Accessed February 28, 2015. http://www.c-span.org/video/?322562-3/discussion-battle-hymn-republic.
     34. The complete lyrics to "Battle Hymn of the Republic" can be found in Appendix P.


Figure 1. Say, Brothers, Will You Meet Us. Hymnary.org. http://www.hymnary.org/text/say_brothers_will_you_meet_us.

Figure 2. John Brown. Wright, Harry Andrew (1894-05). "John Brown in Springfield". The New England Magazine. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:John_Brown_by_Augustus_Washington,_1846-47_reprint.png.

Figure 3. John Brown's Death Treason. Virginia Governor (1856-1859: Wise). Executive Papers of Governor Henry A. Wise, 1856-1859. Accession 36710. State Government Records Collection, The Library of Virginia, Richmond, Va. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ File:John_Brown_-_Treason_broadside,_1859.png.

Figure 4. John Brown's Body. Johnson, Song Publisher, Stationer & Printer, No, 7 N. Tenth St., 3 doors above Market, Phila. http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/ songsheets_bsvg100407/.

Figure 5. Julia Ward's Parents. juliawardhowe.org. http://www.juliawardhowe.org/genealogy.htm.

Figure 6. Anne Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Ward (Emily Astor), 1837. Frick Art Reference Library Photoarchive. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Cutler_Ward#/ media/File:Mr._and_Mrs._Samuel_Ward_(Emily_Astor).jpg.



Figure 7. Mrs. Julia Ward. Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/matthew-albracht/peace-mothers-day_b_3226405.html.


Figure 8. Samuel Gridley Howe. Massachusetts Historical Society http://www.masshist.org/database/1192?ft=Boston%20Abolitionists,%201831-1865&from=/features/boston-abolitionists/john-brown&noalt=1.

Figure 9. The Secret Six. University of Missouri - Kansas City. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/johnbrown/secretsixdetails.html.

Figure 10. Reverend James Freeman Clarke. Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography. http://uudb.org/articles/jamesfreemanclarke.html.

Figure 11. The Willard Hotel: Approximately 1865. picturehistory.com. http://www.picturehistory.com/product/id/30441.

Figure 12. The Original Manuscript of Battle Hymn of the Republic. Reminiscences 1819-1899. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/32603/32603-h/32603-h.htm.


Figure 13. Mr. James T. Fields. The Knickerbocker: Or, New-York Monthly Magazine, Volume 53 (1859). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:James_T_Fields_001.jpg.

Figure 14. The Original Battle Hymn of the Republic. The Atlantic Monthly Magazine. https://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/unbound/flashbks/battlehymn-original.htm.

Figure 15. Mrs. Julia Ward Howe. Harvard University Library Open Collections Program. http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/howe.html.

Figure 16. Image created by author.
1. Itinerant, 2                   19. Deleted, 7
2. Emancipate, 2              20. Engendered, 7
3. Penal, 2                        21. Cosmopolitan, 7
4. Parody, 3                      22. Dirge, 8
5. Doleful, 4                     23. Delectable, 8
6. Ordeals, 4                     24. Requisite, 8
7. Fabrication, 4               25. Devout, 8
8. Deft, 4                          26. Heterodox, 9
9. Deterred, 5                   27. Fatality, 9
10. Entreated, 5                28. Err, 9
11. Egressed, 5                 29. Counsel, 9
12. Dearth, 6                     30. Implicitly, 11
13. Maternal, 6                  31. Execration, 11
14. Radiance, 6                  32. Expounded, 12
15. Luminous, 6                 33. Flagrant, 12
16. Oblivion, 6                   34. Pompous, End Notes
17. Momentous, 6              35. Magnate, End Notes
18. Discourse, 7


Bible, King James Version.
Civilwar.org. "Civil War Music: The Battle Hymn of the Republic." Accessed February 26, 2015. http://      www.civilwar.org/education/history/on-the-     homefront/culture/music/the-battle-hymn-of-the- republic/the-battle-hymn-of-the.html.
Facebook Community. survey by author. "Battle Hymn of the     Republic." Accessed February 28, 2015. https://      www.surveymonkey.com/summary/zIJPYfG4YLeNhveJ_2FxMU_2B     x1OjEw3PDHOpWwbnWcGn68_3D.
Howe, Julia Ward. "Reminisces: 1819-1899." Houghton, Mifflin and Company 1899. Accessed February 26, 2015. https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/Julia -Ward-Howe-Battle-Hymn-of-the-Republic-.
Murphy, Cullen. "A History of the Atlantic Monthly."      theatlantic.com. Accessed February 26, 2015. https://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/about/atlhistf.htm.
Stauffer, John. "Battle Hymn of the Republic" C-SPAN lecture. (video) November 15, 2014, Accessed February 28, 2015. http://www.c-span.org/video/?322562- 3/discussion-battle-hymn-republic.
Stauffer, John. Soskis, Benjamin. "The Battle Hymn of the     Republic: A Biography of the Song that Marches on." Oxford University Press 2013.

Stutler, Body Blynn. "Glory, Glory, Hallelujah: the story of John Browns Body and the Battle Hymn of the Republic." Isha Books 2013.

Thanks for reading! :)

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